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The soil composition is basically dominated by kaolinite in the clay fraction, followed by goethite, gibbsite and titanium oxides anatase. All the contents of this journal, except where peeologia noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Chemical properties and mineralogy of soils with plinthite and petroplinthite in Iranduba AMBrazil 1. Crystal structures of clay minerals and their X-ray identification. X-ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals.

The Ki index was higher in pedplogia poorly-drained profile P4 Table 3particularly in the plinthic horizon and also in the plinthites, confirming that P4 is less developed and chemically weathered than the profiles P1, P2, and P3 and their plinthic materials.

Lupasol makes the most diverse substances adhere to metals pedologiia thus improves the effectiveness of Symptoms of levamisole toxicity mimic organophosphate toxicity salivation, lacrimation, urination and defecation, hyperesthesia, seizures and irritability.

Plinthosols are composed of mineral material with either a plinthic or a petroplinthic horizon 50 cm below the soil surface, or a plinthic horizon cm deep, when underlying either an albic horizon or a horizon with stagnic properties Embrapa, ; IUSS Working Group WRB, In contrast, the total iron oxide contents found in the ferruginous materials were higher than g kg -1revealing a high concentration of Fe-oxides in these ferruginous concretions, formed after a period of time of wetting and drying processes in these soil systems.


According to Schaefer et al. Lavras, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Total porosity TP was obtained by the following expression: Variations in chemical and physical properties of Amazon Forest soils in relation to their genesis. In general, due to the high water table levels, an intense process of chemical reduction of iron compounds occurs, leading to the transport, mobilization, and concentration of these compounds in the soil systems. Received for publication on September 26, Approved on May 20, A number of soil morphological horizon denomination and thickness, Munsell color and physical properties particle size distribution, bulk density and total porosity were also studied, using methods described by Santos et al.

According to the XRD analysis, the mineralogical characteristics of these soils are quite similar.

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Planossolos so solos mal ou imperfeitamente drenados, com seqncia de horizonte A, Bt e C e mudana textural abrupta. Normally, the P-availability in these highly developed upland soils is lower than 5 mg kg -1 Rodrigues, ; Lima, ; Quesada et al, Keys to soil taxonomy.

The available P contents extracted by Mehlich-1 were considered extremely low in all studied profiles. Mutual interactions between organics and iron oxides. The highest amounts of free iron extracted by sodium dithionite citrate bicarbonate DCB Fe d were found at well-drained sites P1, P2, and P3as well as in their plinthic materials Table 3.

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Chemical properties In all samples the soil pH H2O varied from 4. In all samples the soil pH H2O varied from 4. These soil color properties indicate a well-aerated environment at a high landscape position of both profiles. The sand particles were separated by sieving and crushed afterwards in an agate mortar. Also, other important bioclimatic factors such as high amounts of precipitation and temperatures increased leaching and nutrient depletion from the rooting zone to deeper layers, contributing to this low chemical soil quality in the region.


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In turn, the poorly-drained P4 show a different stage of development, basically due to the presence of 2: O novo mapa de solos do Brasil: The higher TOC-content in the surface layer of P3 may be related to a greater input and cycling of organic material at this site. Table of key-lines in X-ray lied diffraction patterns of minerals in clay and associeted rocks.

In the clay and sand fractions, kaolinite and quartz were predominant, respectively Figures 2 and 3. This chemical behavior has often been observed in the highly weathered Amazonian soils, mainly in uplands where the variability of the mineral composition of the parent material is low Radambrasil, ; Schaefer et al.

A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys.

In general, the dominance of kaolinite indicates that these soils are highly developed and weathered. Rio de Janeiro, Embrapa Solos, The plinthic materials in P4 consisted mainly of kaolinite and quartz, whereas 2: Lupasol chelates heavy metals: At each site, the soil profiles were described and soil sampled from each horizon, as proposed by Santos et al.

In general, soils with Ki index lower than 2. The mineralogy of the soil profiles was pedologi similar, mainly of the well-drained soils, with predominance of kaolinite and quartz in the clay and sand fractions, respectively.