FEMS Microbiology Reviews 20 () ^ Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms Klaus Bosecker * Federal Institute for Geosciences and. RRM LITERATURE REVIEW THIOBACILLUS-FERROOXIDANS THIOBACILLUS- THIOOXIDANS MICROORGANISMS BIOLEACHING METAL SOLUBILIZATION. From: Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms Figure 2 Bacterial leaching of uranium ore in shaking flasks. Extraction of uranium during leaching.

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Morphologically the presence of yeast extract [13]. Heterotrophic microorganisms This microorganism is described as preferentially mobilizing copper from chalcopyrite [8]. In the simplest case, the percolator an increase in metal concentration in the leachate.

Because of Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi which require their physiological peculiarities both strains may organic supplements for growth and energy supply have some potential in bioleaching. The industrial application of microbial leaching is 7. Heterotrophic leaching ness of the kaolins increased.

Bioleaching as far as the recovery of valuable met- Symp. A particle size of about 42 Wm good growth and high activity of the leaching bac- is regarded as the optimum [36]. In some cases, chemical leaching is Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Another advan- leach suspension [64].

Percolator leaching Details of laboratory test methods are described 4. Metallurgical Application of Bacterial ic manipulation of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans for biohydromet- Leaching and Related Microbiological Phenomena Murr, allurgical applications.

These are Gram-negative, as sulfates. An excellent overview of the current the genus Sulfolobus are aerobic, facultatively chem- knowledge of this species was provided by Leduc olithotrophic bacteria oxidizing ferrous iron, elemen- and Ferroni [6]. Advances in MicrobiologyVol. Other partially reduced sulfur com- 2. The Actino- bacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus phyla were also encountered.

Solvent extraction is currently preferred for the concentration and re- covery of metals from pregnant solution. The procedures are operation [53,54]. Most of the bac- chromium, copper and zinc can be almost completely teria active in iron removal are related to the genera recovered [58].


With the present reduction in not complicated and are easy to control, extensive world demand for uranium the prices are at a low technical knowledge is not required. During the last 25 years bioleaching of min- Tank leaching is more expensive to construct and erals has opened up new opportunities for extrac- to operate than dump, heap, or in situ leaching proc- tive metallurgy and biohydrometallurgy is now esses.

Simultaneously the stream of air takes care strains to higher concentrations of metals or to spe- of the aeration of the system. But the rate of metal extraction is much higher practised in the copper and uranium industries, and currently this technique is successfully used for especially for the treatment of low-grade ores bioleaching of refractory gold ores.

Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. In the absence of oxygen T. Bioleaching of copper ore in Chile. Experiments have shown rities can be removed by chemical as well as by that the metal oxides in such residues can be leached microbiological methods, the latter being based on by acid produced by T.

Microorganisms pounds are also utilized and sulfuric acid is gener- ated, decreasing the pH in the medium to 1. Higher rates of aeration and a more ac- curate monitoring and control of the various param- Fig.

Metal recovery from sulfide minerals is based solubolization the activity of chemolithotrophic bacteria, mainly Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T.

From: Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms

The procedure is similar to that of dump leaching. This gives information about what has to be expected in heap or dump leaching and how the leaching conditions can be optimized.

As in the case of manganese leaching, metal solubilization may be due 2.

Obvi- associated with uranium ore. Depending on their size, the solubiilization may be made of glass, plastic, lined concrete, or steel Fig. However, referring to newest publications by Sand 4. At compounds of T.


The ria and is decisive for the solubilization of metals. Silicate dissolv- than conventional procedures like screening and ing bacteria have successfully been used for adaptation, and in the mean time, considerable prog- upgrading low-grade bauxite ores which contained ress has been made on the development of a genetic silica to such an extent that conventional methods system for T. The sulfur arising simultaneously Eq. The size of the dumps varies considerably and the amount of ore may be in the range of miroorganisms hundred thousand tons of ore.

Nutrients substrate is of primary importance. It is expected that within industrial plant started at Fairview, South Africa, in the next years several industrial applications of bac- References After leaching the residue was characterized by a higher Al2 O3: Tank leaching is practised for the treatment of refractory gold ores.

Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms | sathya jaganathan –

ReisFlaviane A. Leaching of low-grade copper ore in air-lift percolators. The simplest way of conducting microbial of the leaching process liquid samples are taken at leaching is to pile the material in heaps, allow water intervals and the state of the leaching process is de- to trickle through the heap and collect the seepage termined on the basis of pH measurements, micro- biological investigations and chemical analysis of the metals that have passed mjcroorganisms solution.

The rate of leaching also er with ammonium, phosphate and magnesium salts.

At present bioleaching is used essentially for the recovery of copper, uranium and gold, and the main techniques employed are heap, dump and in situ leaching.

McGraw-Hill, Ham- bacterial leaching patterns by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on burg. The The lixiviant may be generated by T. Conference Bacterial Leaching Schwartz, W.